Rick Phillips has contributed a very helpful post in light of the recent pastoral/scholarly attention given to the relationship between justification and sanctification as it pertains to faithful gospel preaching. Below are his “Seven Assertions” along with a brief explanation of each, which were posted earlier today at Reformation21.
Some recent posts address the important discussion taking place together regarding the relationship of justification to sanctification (see here and here). This topic is crucial to us getting the gospel right today while avoiding the deadly extremes of antinomianism (a lawless Christianity) and legalism (a works-oriented Christianity). In an attempt to give clarity to this topic, I would offer these six assertions regarding justification and sanctification:
- Justification and Sanctification are twin benefits that flow from union with Christ through faith.
- Justification and Sanctification are distinct but simultaneous.
- Justification and Sanctification are both necessary and intrinsic to salvation.
- Justification is logically prior to progressive Sanctification.
- Justification does not cause Sanctification, but Christ both justifies and sanctifies his people.
- In Justification faith is passive and receptive (Gal. 2:16), whereas in Sanctification faith is active.
- The law of God functions differently with respect to Justification and Sanctification.
Let me discuss each of these briefly:
(Note: My Scripture references are not meant to be exhaustive, but to point to the main line of biblical support.)
1. Justification and Sanctification are twin benefits that flow from union with Christ through faith. Christ is himself the center of the gospel, and through faith we are saved in union with him (Acts 16:31; Eph. 1:3). Justification and Sanctification are distinct benefits flowing through union with Christ by faith alone. Justification is a legal benefit of our union with Christ, granting us forgiveness of sin and righteousness before God through faith alone (Rom. 3:23-26; Gal. 2:16). Sanctification is a Spiritual benefit* of our union with Christ, involving the believer’s transformation into the holy likeness of Christ (Rom. 6:1-14; Eph. 4:20-24; Tit. 2:12).
* I capitalize Spiritual to emphasize that it is the Holy Spirit’s work in our lives.
2. Justification and Sanctification are distinct but simultaneous. Justification pertains to the legal problem of sin, providing Christ’s imputed righteousness once for all (Rom. 3:23-25). A believer will never be more righteous than at the moment when he first believed, since he receives through faith Christ’s perfect and complete righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21). Sanctification pertains to the spiritual and moral corruption of sin. It is both definitive andprogressive. Definitive sanctification refers to the believer being set apart for and to Christ at the moment of conversion (1 Cor. 6:15-17). Progressive sanctification refers to the on-going process of becoming holy according to the likeness of Christ (Eph. 4:21-24). At the moment of saving faith, the Christian is both justified and sanctified (1 Cor. 1:30), definitive sanctification immediately beginning the Spirit’s work of progressive sanctification (Rom. 6:1-14).
3. Justification and Sanctification are both necessary and intrinsic to salvation. While Justification and Sanctification are distinct, they are also inseparable in salvation. A believer cannot be justified without being sanctified (Rom. 6:1-2; Eph. 2:8-10). Through faith alone, sinners are justified in Christ (Gal. 2:16). But as faith brings us into union with Christ, the Holy Spirit also begins and continues sanctification (1 Cor. 6:15-17; Eph. 5:1-21; 1 Thess. 4:1-8). In other words, while we deny that faith + works = justification, we insist that faith = justification + works (i.e. sanctification)(Eph. 2:8-10).
4. Justification is logically prior to progressive Sanctification. This is Calvin’s meaning in describing the doctrine of justification as the hinge on which the door of salvation turns. By “logically prior,” we mean, for instance, that we will usually address an unbeliever regarding his need for justification before we call him to sanctification. (Until the sinner is justified through faith, there is little point in discussing his or her sanctification.) The logical priority of justification is seen in the Book of Romans, where justification is treated first (Rom. 3-5), after which Paul turns to sanctification (Rom. 5-8). As another example, after the Fall God blocked the entryway to the Garden with the angel and his flaming sword. This represents the forensic/legal problem of sin for which justification through faith is the answer. Once passing through this barrier, the believer may eat of the tree of life and dwell in the presence of the Lord, which pertain to his sanctification.
5. Justification does not cause Sanctification. Sanctification, like Justification, is caused by union with Christ through faith (Rom. 6:1-14). Just as Christ justifies, Christ also sanctifies his people (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 3:12-17). For this reason, the idea that we need only preach justification in order to gain sanctification is contrary to the biblical pattern. Paul, for instance, does not preach justification so that sanctification will occur, but rather he preaches sanctification itself (Rom. 6:12-14; 12:1-2, etc.). Peter also declares “Be holy” (1 Pet. 1:15). This being the case, gospel preaching does not consist merely of preaching Christ for justification, but also consists of preaching Christ for sanctification.
6. In Justification faith is passive and receptive (Gal. 2:16), whereas in Sanctification faith isactive (Eph. 5:3-21; Col. 3:5-11). In justification, sinners receive the grace of God for forgiveness and righteousness. In sanctification, believers work out the grace that God works into them (Phil. 2:12-13). Innumerable New Testament passages urge activity and obligation on the part of the believer in advancing his or her sanctification. Generally, sanctification is empowered by Christ through the faithful employment of the means of grace: God’s Word, prayer, and the sacraments (Isa. 55:10-11; Jn. 17:17; Phil. 4:6-7; 1 Cor. 10:16-17).
7. The law of God functions differently with respect to Justification and Sanctification. In the service of Justification, the primary purpose of God’s law is to convict us of sin (the law is Calvin’s mirror that shows us that we need the cleansing soap of the gospel; Rom. 2:12;3:23). This is called “the first use of the law.” In Sanctification, the primary purpose of the law is instructive: it is the guide for how believers live and honor Christ (Mt. 65:17-48; Rom. 8:4;Eph. 5:3-5). This is “the third use of the law.” (The “second use of the law” is as a curb to restrain ungodliness.) All of these uses of the law are legitimate and necessary.